During CSS preparation students always face difficulty in making their self-fact book. Most of the time they do not get relevant facts to note and write in their answers. It is important to learn those facts which are relevant to learn and put in answers. I have collected a few Articles and Acts from different sources that will help you all to use them whenever there is a question related to women. They will help you in Gender Studies, Criminology, and in Essay topics mainly focusing on the protection of women. Similarly, you can read important quotes from feminists to write in CSS Gender Studies Exam.
LAWS IN PAKISTAN FOR WOMEN:
• Protection of Women (Criminal Law Amendment) Act 2006
• The Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act, 2011
• Prevention of Anti-Women Practices Act 2011
• Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offenses of Rape) Act 2016
• Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offenses in the Name of Honor) Act 2016
• Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act 2016
• Hindu Marriage Act 2017
International Conventions that Pakistan is signatory to:
Pakistan has also committed itself to “pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women”. It is therefore obliged to remove “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made based on sex 186 [J.R.S.P., Vol. 51, No. 1, January – June 2014] which has the purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women… based on equality between men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms” (UN, 2011: 19)
• International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
• Beijing Plan of Action
• United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
1. Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act (2010):
Addresses workplace harassment and provides a framework for complaints and investigations.
2. The Women’s Protection Act (2006):
Addresses issues related to offenses against women, including acid attacks, burning, and domestic violence.
3. Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act (1939):
Provides grounds on which a Muslim woman can seek the dissolution of her marriage.
4. Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act (2012):
Criminalizes domestic violence and provides legal protection and remedies for victims.
5. The Sindh Child Marriage Restraint Act (2013):
Set the legal age for marriage at 18 years for both boys and girls.
6. The Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act (2006):
Addresses crimes against women, such as rape and acid attacks, and introduces amendments to the Pakistan Penal Code.
7. Honor Killings:
Legislation has been introduced to strengthen penalties for honor killings, making it a criminal offense.
8. Cybercrime Laws:
Amendments to the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (2016) include provisions related to the non-consensual dissemination of intimate images, which can protect women from online harassment.
9. Family Laws:
Various family laws, such as the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance (1961), govern matters like marriage, divorce, and inheritance, aiming to safeguard the rights of women.
10. Constitutional Protections:
The Constitution of Pakistan guarantees equal rights to all citizens, irrespective of gender. Several constitutional provisions emphasize equality and nondiscrimination
Laws from the Pakistan Penal Code:
In the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC), various sections prescribe punishments for offenses related to crimes against women. It's important to note that specific penalties may vary based on the nature and severity of the offense.
1. Section 354: Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty:
Punishment may extend to two years of imprisonment, or with a fine, or with both.
2. Section 354-A: Assault or use of criminal force to woman and stripping her of clothes:
Imprisonment for a term that may extend to three years and a fine.
3. Section 363-A: Kidnapping or abducting to subject a person to unnatural lust:
Imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years and a fine.
4. Section 376: Punishment for rape:
Imprisonment for life or for a term which may extend to twenty-five years and a fine.
5. Section 509: Word, gesture, or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman:
Imprisonment for a term that may extend to three years, with a fine, or with both.
6. Section 310-A: Kidnapping or abducting to subject a person to unnatural lust:
Imprisonment for life and a fine.
7. Section 498-A: Offense of cruelty to a woman by her husband or relatives:
Imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and a fine
Five Important Steps to Follow Now:
1) Learn paper-attempting technique to write and present your paper well
2) Complete your syllabus
3) Make a fact book about gender studies and note down important statistics
4) Learn the names of a few books and their perspectives to quote in the exam
5) Your every answer must carry numeric facts and quotes.
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